What social changes yield a society that is more equitable, sustainable, resilient, and robust?
Increases in incarceration within states are associated with increases in industrial emissions, and that increases in incarceration lead to a more tightly coupled association between gross domestic product per capita and industrial emissions.
Over time, at the country level, increasing economic inequality reduces renewable energy consumption, with no evidence of reciprocal feedback.
In nations with more gender equality, the association between GDP per capita and CO2 emissions is much lower than in nations with higher levels of gender inequality.
We explore how the relationship between the intensity of urban development and the environmental intensity of social activity hinges upon the composition of the various dimensions of urban change (e.g., the extent and concentration of the built environment, the size and density of resident populations, and the availability of social resources).
We explore the asymmetrical relationship between economic activity and CIWB for 153 nations from 1961–2013, as well as the theoretical implications of such a relationship.
Renewable energy displaces more fossil fuel energy sources when inequality is increasing, while– conversely– fewer existing fossil fuel energy sources are displaced when inequality is decreasing. Efforts aimed at increasing renewable energy consumption should adopt policies that ensure the effective displacement of fossil fuels and reduce inequality.
In nations belonging to the core and semi-periphery, temporal advance is associated with increases in CO2 emissions per capita, rather than the decreases that might be expected
Between 1985 and 2011 rising income inequality led to a tighter coupling between economic growth and CO2 emissions in developed nations.
While urbanization is associated with increases in CIWB, the relationship between urban development and CIWB is vastly different in developed nations without slums than in under-developed nations with slums.