We explore how the relationship between the intensity of urban development and the environmental intensity of social activity hinges upon the composition of the various dimensions of urban change (e.g., the extent and concentration of the built environment, the size and density of resident populations, and the availability of social resources).
We use migratory birds as a working example to present a dynamic conservation opportunity and related challenges.
While urbanization is associated with increases in CIWB, the relationship between urban development and CIWB is vastly different in developed nations without slums than in under-developed nations with slums.
In areas of the southern United States, rural growth was associated with afforestation, not deforestation. We speculate on how this unusual finding contributes to the debate between ecological modernization and urban political economy.